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Home: Referencing and Bibliographies

Library Guides

Footnotes / Endnotes

Refer to this document for including Footnotes in your work. 

Citing Social Media


In-text referencing

In your paper, every time you summarise, paraphrase or quote from a source you need to provide an in-text citation. The in-text citation consists of the family name of the author/s, the year of publication and sometimes a page number. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation when quoting directly. Page numbers should be provided if the summarised or paraphrased material appears in specific pages or sections of a work.

Burdess (2007, p. 17) describes students in a university tutorial as workers, empty vessels, trappists or drones.

The effective manager delegates and shows trust in his workers. This type of leadership is transformational (Holt, 2012).

Referencing using MS Word

What do I need to remember?

1. Record your sources as you go. You can use a citation organiser such as this one to keep you organised.

2. Reference in-text if you directly quote, or use someone's idea/s (Author, Date, page no.)

3. Generate a Bibliography/Reference List using one of the electronic tools listed.

4. Make sure each in-text reference has a corresponding full entry in your Bibliography/Reference List

SAPSS Libraries Referencing

SAPSS students are expected to acknowledge the source of ideas, facts and quotations used from print and digital sources.

SAPSS Libraries provide referencing guidance via their respective LibGuides pages. Students are encouraged to access the appropriate support guides and/or generators to assist with the referencing process. Teacher/Librarians are available to assist students with citing sources and creating bibliographies.

CiteMaker Tutorial

What should I reference?

The golden rule to remember is this: whenever you refer to an idea (or a fact or figure) that is directly attributable to someone, you must reference this.  Otherwise: it's plagiarism.


The following types of sources do not need to be acknowledged:

  • your own experiences
  • your own experimental results
  • common knowledge.

Common knowledge includes:

  • facts that are commonly known (eg there are twelve months in a year)
  • facts that are so well known that they are easily available in a number of different kinds of sources (eg World War II began in 1939)
  • commonsense observations (eg interest rates going up will affect mortgage payments).

Source: Board of Studies, HSC All My Own Work

What is paraphrasing?

paraphrasing  present participle of par·a·phrase


Express the meaning of (the writer or speaker or something written or spoken) using different words, esp. to achieve greater clarity.

Plagiarism at a glance

Subject Guide

Karen Bale's picture
Karen Bale
St Joseph's Regional College
1 College Drive
Port Macquarie NSW 2444

(02) 55254100